Types Of Musical Notes You Need To Know

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In this lesson, we’re going to take a look at some of the basic types of musical notes.

We’ll be covering:

  • The different music notes and their time values
  • How to draw note stems and note tails (also known as hooks or flags)
  • How to beam notes together
  • Tied and dotted notes

Just click any of the links in the table of contents below to jump to that section.

Music note names and their time values

When playing music a musician needs to know how long to play each sound for.

Composers tell them by using different note symbols. Let’s take a look at some of them now.

Semibreve (whole note)

a semibreve or whole note
Semibreve / whole note

The first note is called a semibreve or in the US it’s called a ‘whole note’. 

It’s like a small oval shaped zero or letter O which is a good way to think of it when you first begin writing music.

We call this oval-shaped part of a note ‘the note head’.

A semibreve has a value of four beats.

That means when we play a semibreve we count to four whilst holding the note.

Minim (half note)

a minim or half note
Minim / half note

The second note we’ll look at is called a minim or ‘half note’.

It’s similar to a semibreve but has a line coming out of the right-hand side of its note head.

This line is called a stem.

The stem halves the value of the note and so a minim has a value of two beats.

That means that we count to two when playing a minim, half as long as a semibreve.

Crotchet (quarter note)

a crotchet or quarter note
Crotchet / quarter note

Next, we have a crotchet or ‘quarter note‘.

It’s like a minim but, it has its note head filled in black.

This halves the value of the note again and so a crotchet has a value of one beat, half as long as a minim.

Quaver (eighth note)

a quaver or eighth note
Quaver / 8th note

This note is a quaver or ‘eighth note.’ 

It’s like a crotchet but, it also has a tail coming out of the side of its stem.

The note tail is also referred to as a flag or a hook.

The tail halves the value of the note again and so a quaver has a value of half a beat, half as long as a crotchet.

Semiquaver (16th note)

a semiquaver or 16th note
Semiquaver / 16th note

Up next, we have a semiquaver or ‘sixteenth note.’ 

It’s like a quaver but has two tails coming out of its stem.

This means that it’s half the value of quaver and so is worth one-quarter of a beat. 

Demisemiquaver (32nd note)

a demisemiquaver or 32nd note
Demisemiquaver / 32nd note

Here we have a demisemiquaver or ‘32nd note’. You can see it has three tails (one more than a semiquaver).

A demisemiquaver is worth half the value of a semiquaver and so is worth one-eighth of a beat.

Infographic of the types of musical notation
A quick guide to musical notes

Other notes

Those are the main notes you’ll come across and use in musical notation but you can get shorter and longer notes too.

Hemidemisemiquaver (64th note)

a hemidemisemiquaver or 64th note
Hemidemisemiquaver / 64th note

A hemidemisemiquaver (I know it’s a bit of a mouthful) or in the US it’s referred to as a ‘64th note‘ is just like a demisemiquaver but with an additional tail.

It’s very uncommon though so don’t worry about it too much!

You can get even shorter notes than this such as the semihemidemisemiquaver (128th note) and the demisemihemidemisemiquaver (256th note) but I’m not going to cover those as they’re extremely rare.

Breve (double whole note)

a breve or double whole note
Breve / double whole note

You can also have a note called a breve or ‘double whole note’ which is worth eight beats, twice as long as a semibreve.

It’s quite uncommon as well but you will need to know about it for a grade 5 music theory exam.

Musical notes chart

Here’s a chart of all the different types of common musical notes with their US and UK names, an image and then the number of beats they’re worth.

Musical Notes Chart
Name (UK) Name (US) Symbol Beats
breve double whole note 8 beats
semibreve whole note 4 beats
minim half note 2 beats
crotchet quarter note 1 beat
quaver eighth note 1/2 beat
semiquaver 16th note 1/4 beat
demisemiquaver 32nd note 1/8 beat

Note stems

As well as the stems of notes being able to point upwards they can also point downwards.

When a note’s stem points upwards, it comes out of the right-hand side of the note head. 

But, when a note’s stem points downwards, it comes out of the left-hand side of the note head.

examples of note stems

There are some rules to know about to determine which way the stems should point though. 

I cover some of the basics in this post here about notes on the stave.

The most important thing, however, is to always have the stem on the correct side of the note head.

Note tails

As you hopefully spotted above it’s not the same with notes that have tails like quavers and semiquavers.

Note’s tails always come out of the right-hand side of the stem, no matter whether or not they’re pointing up or down.

note tails and their directions

The way to remember this is that tails always follow the direction of the music.

In other words, we read music from left to right.

So the note tails always point in the direction of the music.

To the right.

Beaming notes together

When we have two or more notes with a tail (like quavers and semiquavers) next to each other, we join their tails together with a beam between the tops of their stems.

This is to help make it easier for musicians to read the notes.

Let’s look at how to beam quavers.

Beaming quavers (eighth notes)

When we beam quavers together we join the stems together using their note tails. 

For example two quavers on their own become:

example showing how to beam quavers

There are lots of rules and conventions about how many quavers we can beam together.

But I’ll cover those in another post on grouping notes in different time signatures.

Beaming semiquavers (sixteenth notes)

It works the same with semiquavers but instead of having one beam between their stems we use two beams.

This is because they have two tails.

example showing how to beam semiquavers

For demisemiquavers and hemidemisemiquavers we would just add an additional beam or two depending on how many tails the note has.

Combinations of quavers and semiquavers

We can also have different combinations of quavers and semiquavers beamed together.

For example:

two semiquavers and a quaver beamed
a quaver followed by two semiquavers beamed
a semiquaver followed by a quaver and a semiquaver beamed

There are some rules about how to beam and group notes in different time signatures that we’ll cover in a later lesson too. 

Dotted notes

Sometimes when writing music a composer might want to make a note last longer than a note’s value.

When this is the case we can use a dotted note to extend the duration of the note.

a dotted crotchet or dotted quarter note

This dot after the note head makes the note longer by half its value. 

For example, a dotted minim has the same time value as a minim plus a crotchet:

a doted minim is equal to a minim plus a crotchet

A dotted crotchet has the same time value as a crotchet plus a quaver:

a doted crotchet is equal to a crotchet plus a quaver

A dotted quaver has the same value as a quaver plus a semiquaver:

a doted quaver is equal to a quaver plus a semiquaver

Where do you place the dot?

When we dot a note that is on a line on the stave, we place the dot in the space above the line.

And when we dot a note that is sitting in a space of the stave, we place the dot in the same space as the note head.

dotted notes on the stave

We can’t have a dotted note go across a bar line though. If we want a note to go over a barline then we use a tied note which we’re going to have a look at next.

Tied notes

tie is a sloped line that joins together two notes that are next to each other and have the same pitch. 

a tie line

This means that the time values of the notes are added together to create a longer note.

For example, two minims tied together have the same value as a semibreve:

two minims tied are equal to a semibreve

Two crotchets tied together have the same value as a minim:

two crotchets tied together are equal to a minim

Two quavers tied together have the same value as a crotchet:

two quavers tied together are equal to a crotchet

They don’t have to be the same time value either, you could have a crotchet tied to a quaver, or a minim tied to a crotchet etc.

When we write a tie we always write it from the note head of the first note to the note head of the second note.

At the opposite end to the stem.

how to tied notes and how not to tie notes with their stems pointing up

This is also the case when the stems are pointing downwards.

how to tied notes and how not to tie notes with their stems pointing down

Tied notes over bar lines

The last thing to mention is that we can tie together any number of notes together and they can also go across bar lines.

But, they have to be the same pitch.

tied notes over bar lines
Tied notes over bar lines

If the notes are different pitches then you’ll be drawing a slur line.

Rests and when not to play

Music isn’t all about sound, sometimes not playing a note is just as important.

All the different types of musical notes we’ve learnt above have a corresponding symbol telling the musician not to play and to be silent.

We call these symbols rests. You can read more about the different music rest symbols here.

That’s it for now, hopefully you understand how to read and write music a little better.

But, if you have any questions about anything covered in this post just leave a comment below.

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